Specialisation: International intellectual property law

Franchising law

Module A [LWM16A ]

The business of franchising

A history of franchising

Types of franchising

The franchise model

Lack of research literature

How a franchise is established

Becoming a franchisee.

Module B [ LWM16B ]

Intellectual property and franchising

Sequence: module A must be attempted before module B

Trade marks and franchising: Part I

Trade marks and franchising: Part II

Breach of confidence

Passing off


Module C [LWM16C ]

The franchising contract

Sequence: module A must be attempted before module C

Regulations of franchising through contract

Structure of the franchising contract

The grant

Brand maintenance

The ‘method’ of the franchise

Law of competition.

Module D [ LWM16D ]

The regulation of franchising

Sequence: module A must be attempted before module D

What is a franchise?

The purpose of regulation

Registration requirements

Disclosure requirements and cooling off

Regulation of franchising contracts

Franchise fraud: pyramid selling

Renewal and exit rules.

Module A first.

Mendelsohn, M. The guide to franchising. (London: Thomson Learning, 2005) 7th edition [ISBN 9781844801626].

Crawford Spencer, E. The regulation of franchising in the new global economy. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010) [ISBN 9781848448667].

Intellectual property and medicine

Module A [LWM23A]

Intellectual property of medicine and its sources

International framework and history of intellectual property relevant to medicine

Categories of intellectual property relevant to medicine

European and National systems (UK and designated jurisdictions)

Applications of intellectual property in medical and pharmaceutical industries

Module B [LWM23B]

Access to medicines

Overview of the issues and history of the campaign

Human right to health and the ethics of patents

TRIPS Agreement

Doha Development Round (Ministerial Declaration; Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health; Decision on Paragraph 6)

Paragraph 6 System

Module C [LWM23C]

Patents and life forms

Legal and socio-legal concept of life form

Ethical considerations and exceptions

Medical biotechnologies

International, European and designated domestic frameworks (including European Biotechnology Directive)

Genes and gene sequences


Germ-line modification technology


Module D [LWM23D]

Property in the person

Medical and genetic privacy and intellectual property

Genetic privacy

Genetic sampling and collection; genomic libraries and databases

Traditional medicine and genetic resources

The modules must be attempted in order.

Johanna Gibson, Intellectual Property and Medicine: Current Debates (London: Ashgate,
2009), ISBN: 0754672182

Intellectual property and sport

Module A [LWM63A]

Branding in sports

Introduction to sporting brands

Trade mark protection for sports events and sports stars

Using copyright to protect imagery and sounds in sport

Using design rights to protect images, mascots and brands

Passing off and endorsement of events and stars

Sports celebrities image rights

Module B [LWM63B]

Sponsorship in sports

The sponsorship market in sport

The different types of sponsorship available

The sorts of rights granted in sponsorship agreements

The responsibilities of both sponsors and the sponsored party

The sponsorship contract

Module C [LWM63C]

Ambush marketing

Introduction to ambush marketing

Protection of special event symbols (for example, the Olympics)

Anti-ambush marketing laws

The use of domain names to ambush an event

The internationalisation of ambush marketing norms

Preventing ambush marketing: the toolkit

Module D [LWM63D]

Special topics in sports

Broadcasting rights

Ticketing restrictions

Advertising laws and sports branding

Counterfeiting and merchandising

Modules A and B must be completed before C or D is atttempted.

Phillip Johnson, Ambushing marketing: a practical guide to protecting the brand of a sporting event (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 2007), ISBN 9781847033949

Intellectual property on the internet

Module A [LWM24A]

Digital copyright

Introduction to digital copyright
Copyright Directive and Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Emerging copyright issues
Licensing and rights management in the digital arena

Module B [LWM24B]

Trade marks and other rights in distinctive signs online

Introduction to trade marks
Developments in use of trade marks online
Principle of territoriality and use of trade marks online
Unfair competition

Module C [LWM24C]

Domain names

Introduction to the mechanics of the domain name system
Recent developments concerning domain names and intellectual property
Dispute resolution

Module D [LWM24D]

Computer-related patents

Business methods patents
Software patents
Prior art effect
Enforcement of rights

The modules can be attempted in any order.

David I. Bainbridge, Intellectual Property 8th ed (London: Longman, 2010), ISBN: 9781408229286
Andrew Christie and Stephen Gare (eds), Blackstone’s Statutes on Intellectual Property 8th ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), ISBN: 0199288267

International and comparative law of copyright and related rights

Module A [LWM26A]

Copyright law in the United Kingdom and United States

Introduction and protectable subject matter

Protection criteria

Ownership and duration

Economic and moral rights

Infringement and limitations to protection

Module B [LWM26B]

French and German copyright law and related rights

Introduction and protected subject matter

Economic and moral rights

Authorship, transfer of rights and duration

Limitations and exceptions

Module C [LWM26C]

International copyright law – international conventions and aspects of private international law

General concepts

The Berne Convention

The Universal Copyright Convention

The Rome Convention on the Protection of Phonograms and Performing Artists

Copyright and the TRIPs Agreement

The WIPO “Internet Treaties”

Private International Law Aspects

Module D [LWM26D]

Copyright law in the European Community

Introduction to copyright law in the European Community

Computer programs and database protection

Rental and lending rights, satellite broadcasting and cable

Copyright term and artist's resale right

Copyright in the information society and enforcement

Either module A or module B first, but both module A and module B must be attempted before module C or module D.

Adrian Sterling, World Copyright Law (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2003), ISBN: 9780421790704

International and comparative law of patents, trade secrets and related rights

Module A [LWM27A]

Comparative law of patents

Introduction to patents: history, justifications, agreements

Methods of applying for a patent


The person skilled in the art, priority and grace periods

Infringement and exceptions to infringement

Entitlement/ownership of patents

Module B [LWM27B]

Comparative law of trade secrets

Why protect trade secrets?

The distinction between commercial trade secrets and privacy

Relationship between trade secrets and patenting

Trade secrets law in England, the United States, Germany and France

Module C [LWM27C]

International agreements on patent law

Paris Convention

TRIPS Agreement

European Patent Convention

Other regional patent agreements

Patent Cooperation Treaty

The Convention on Biodiversity

Patent Law Treaty

Budapest Treaty

Locarno Agreement on Classification

Supplementary Protection Certificates

Enforcement Directive (2004/48/EC)

Module D [LWM27D]

Current issues in international patent law and policy

Utility models and petty patents

Biotechnological patenting (so-called life patents and gene patents)

Plant variety protection

Patenting of computer software and business methods

“Patent quality” and Peer-to-patent

The modules must be attempted in order.

Lionel Bently and Brad Sherman, Intellectual Property Law 3rd ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ISBN: 9780199292042

Andrew Christie and Stephen Gare (eds), Blackstone’s Statutes on Intellectual Property 9th ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), ISBN: 9780199238262

International and comparative law of trade marks, designs and unfair competition

Module A [LWM28A]

The concepts of trade marks, designs and unfair competition

Introduction to the concept of trade marks: a functional, legal, and economic analysis

Introduction to unfair competition

The history of trade marks

Systems of protection; registered and unregistered trade marks

International agreements: the Paris Convention; the World Trade Organization; International Registrations; regional agreements; the Community Trade Mark (introduction); classification treaties; Trade Mark Law Treaty; appellations of origin; the Olympic symbols

Module B [LWM28B]

Unfair competition

Systems of unfair competition: a comparative perspective

Misrepresentation and misappropriation

Unfair competition in the United Kingdom

Unfair competition in the United States

Unfair competition in France

Unfair competition in Germany

Other jurisdictions.

Module C [LWM28C]

Registered trade marks

Registered trade marks: a comparative perspective

Systems of registration: first to file v. first to use

Registered trade marks in Europe: the Community Trade Mark; national registrations (United Kingdom; France; Germany); the role of the European Court of Justice

Registered trade marks in the United States

Other jurisdictions

Current trends: dilution; domain names.

Module D [LWM28D]

Special topics in trade marks

Industrial designs; relationship to other forms of protection; Community Design Regulation; Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs, as amended.

Appellations of origin

Trade marks and competition: parallel imports; functionality and the interface between trade marks and other intellectual property rights; comparative advertising

Cultural issues: advertising; character merchandising; symbols of indigenous communities.

Module A first, Module D last.

William R. Cornish, David Llewelyn and Tanya Aplin, Intellectual Property: Patents, Copyright, Trademarks and Allied Rights 7th revised ed (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2010), ISBN: 9781847039231

Andrew Christie and Stephen Gare, Blackstone’s Statutes on Intellectual Property 8th ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), ISBN: 9780199288267

Alison Firth et al, Trade Marks: Law and Practice 3rd ed (Bristol: Jordan Publishing Ltd, 2011), ISBN: 9781846612633

Transfer of technology law

Module A [LWM49A]

Intellectual property and technology transfer

Background to technology transfer


Breach of confidence



Module B [LWM49B]

Licensing of intellectual property

The interests in intellectual property


General contractual principles



Licence terms


Module C [LWM49C]

Competition law and technology transfer

Introduction to competition law

Market definition and article 101(3)

Technology Transfer Block Exemption

Research and development and specialisation block exemptions

Licence agreements outside a block exemption

Abuse of dominant position

Patent pooling

Module D [LWM49D]

Border issues in technology transfer

Sequence: module A must be attempted before module D


Border controls

Export control


Compulsory licences

Module A first.

Bently, L. and B. Sherman Intellectual property law. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)