Laws, undergraduate (LLB and Diploma in Law)

Overview

Study for an LLB degree of international standing by distance learning

This programme is for you if you:

  • Want to obtain an LLB degree of international standing which has provided the first step on a career route for many thousands of practising lawyers worldwide.
  • Wish to develop a critical awareness of the common law legal tradition and be able to apply analytical and problem-solving skills in a range of legal and non-legal settings.
  • Would like to enhance key skills of communication, information literacy, analysis and argument.

Understanding the learning experience

What you should expect from the Undergraduate Laws Programme [pdf, 3pgs 416KB]

Note: if you intend to practise as a lawyer, barrister or solicitor, we strongly recommend that you check on the requirements of the professional body in the jurisdiction in which you wish to practise before committing yourself to the degree.

Key dates
LLB application deadline 1 October in the year before you intend to sit your first examinations
LLB registration deadline 30 November in the year before you intend to sit your examinations
Diploma in Law registration deadline 31 October in the year before you intend to sit your examinations 
Examinations take place May/June

Programme aims and values

The Laws Programme is committed to:

  • Promoting independent learning. We support you in developing your capacity to manage your own learning.
  • Providing a wealth of resources. With our Online Library and Laws Virtual Learning Environment, you have a resource-rich learning environment in which to develop your legal research skills.
  • Offering expert guidance in law. Our study materials are informed by current research and scholarship and engage with contemporary legal issues. Students are offered the opportunity not only to know the law but to understand it.
  • Developing ‘transferable’ intellectual skills. You have many opportunities to develop analytical and problem-solving skills and learn how to construct arguments.
  • Enabling you to develop critical awareness. Learn how to stand back and consider the ‘bigger picture’, develop an awareness of the context of law, nationally and globally.
  • Understanding the language of law. Learning how to use legal discourse is crucial for success. Being able to communicate effectively is a vital skill.

Prestige and career progression

In a world where degree providers are proliferating, the University of London Bachelor of Laws offers the security of an internationally recognised 'gold standard' established for over 100 years. The University of London was the first to offer a degree in English Law, in the 1890s. Upon graduation you will be joining a distinguished group of solicitors, barristers and judges around the world who began their careers by obtaining their law degree through the University of London International Programmes. The academic direction of the LLB and Diploma in Law is provided by a Consortium of outstanding University of London Law Schools: Birkbeck, King's, LSE, Queen Mary, SOAS and UCL.

Flexible study at a reasonable cost

You have 3-8 years to complete the Bachelor of Laws (or a minimum of 2 years on Graduate Entry Route A) and 1-5 years to complete the Diploma. Fees are payable as you progress rather than as a single lump. The following are examples of University fees for the whole programme of study: from £2,773 for LLB Graduate Entry Route A to £4,262 for LLB Scheme B, and £1,525 for the Diploma in Law (you will also need to pay fees to the teaching institution). Please note that these examples assume completion in the minimum study period and are calculated using current fees for 2014-15 and so do not reflect any annual change in fees. Further details of fees payable to the University are provided on the fees page.

Structure

Structure and syllabus

The Bachelor of Laws degree is offered under six different Pathways.

The Diploma in Law can lead to Scheme A, Scheme B or Scheme F of the LLB with credit for all four courses passed.

Scheme A - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Scheme A (twelve courses)

Scheme A is the traditional LLB structure in which twelve courses are taken in three stages. The minimum time to complete is three years. The LLB through Scheme A is a Qualifying Law Degree if completed within six years.

Year 1 (four courses)
All four courses from the Intermediate list.
Year 2 (four courses)
At least two courses from Compulsory Finals and no more than two courses from Optional Finals Group 1.
Year 3 (four courses)
Any Compulsory Finals courses not already taken, plus Optional Finals from Group 1 or Group 2 to make up four courses.

 

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Compulsory Finals

Property law

Much of the work of solicitors turns around property law in the form of conveyancing (buying and selling dwellings or commercial enterprises) or the relations between landlords and tenants. Here the central principles of English law are portrayed, including the necessary historical context, as many of the basic concepts were established in social conditions very different from today. Property law centres on the concept of the nature and quantum of the various interests that can exist in land, the principles governing the creation, transfer and extinction of these interests and the extent that those interests are enforceable against third parties.

Law of tort

The law of tort concerns the civil liability for the wrongful infliction of injury by one person upon another. The characteristic claim in tort is for monetary compensation or damages. There is no single principle of liability, which makes tort law complex; also there are other sources of monetary compensation for personal injuries (such as unemployment/social security payments, private insurance, criminal injuries compensation schemes, etc.) as well as the fact that the same harms may be pursued through the criminal justice system.
Negligence is a key topic and other topics include: interference with economic interest; trespass; defamation; vicarious liability as well as defences and remedies, and sources of future development including EU law.

Law of trusts

A part of Equity law, the law of trusts deals with the rules and principles governing the creation and operation of trusts – a particular method of holding property that developed historically primarily to preserve family wealth, particularly by minimising liability to taxation. The syllabus focuses on three broad areas: 1) the requirements for establishing a valid trust (including express private trusts; charitable trusts; implied and resulting trusts; constructive trusts); 2) the powers and obligations of trustees under a valid trust (including appointment, retirement and removal of trustees); 3) the remedies available when trustees act improperly.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Dissertation

The Dissertation course option offers final-year students the opportunity to undertake in-depth legal/sociolegal research. Students design their own research question – and submit a research proposal online – on a topic they have not previously (or concurrently) studied in depth. The Dissertation option will be examined a) by electronic submission of a 10,000 word Dissertation and b) a short final examination.
The Dissertation is a course in its own right and it may be used to complete the Laws
Skills Portfolio.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Scheme B - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Scheme B (twelve courses)

Scheme B is intended for those wishing to study at a more measured pace, with twelve courses taken in four stages. It takes a minimum of four years to complete. The LLB through Scheme B is a Qualifying Law Degree if completed within six years.

Year 1 (three courses)
Common law reasoning and institutions plus two other courses from the Intermediate list
Year 2 (three courses)
The remaining course from the Intermediate list plus two courses from Compulsory Finals
Year 3 (three courses)
At least one course from Compulsory Finals and no more than two courses from Optional Finals Group 1
Year 4 (three courses)
Any Compulsory Finals courses not already taken plus Optional Finals from Group 1 or Group 2 to make up three courses

 

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Compulsory Finals

Property law

Much of the work of solicitors turns around property law in the form of conveyancing (buying and selling dwellings or commercial enterprises) or the relations between landlords and tenants. Here the central principles of English law are portrayed, including the necessary historical context, as many of the basic concepts were established in social conditions very different from today. Property law centres on the concept of the nature and quantum of the various interests that can exist in land, the principles governing the creation, transfer and extinction of these interests and the extent that those interests are enforceable against third parties.

Law of tort

The law of tort concerns the civil liability for the wrongful infliction of injury by one person upon another. The characteristic claim in tort is for monetary compensation or damages. There is no single principle of liability, which makes tort law complex; also there are other sources of monetary compensation for personal injuries (such as unemployment/social security payments, private insurance, criminal injuries compensation schemes, etc.) as well as the fact that the same harms may be pursued through the criminal justice system.
Negligence is a key topic and other topics include: interference with economic interest; trespass; defamation; vicarious liability as well as defences and remedies, and sources of future development including EU law.

Law of trusts

A part of Equity law, the law of trusts deals with the rules and principles governing the creation and operation of trusts – a particular method of holding property that developed historically primarily to preserve family wealth, particularly by minimising liability to taxation. The syllabus focuses on three broad areas: 1) the requirements for establishing a valid trust (including express private trusts; charitable trusts; implied and resulting trusts; constructive trusts); 2) the powers and obligations of trustees under a valid trust (including appointment, retirement and removal of trustees); 3) the remedies available when trustees act improperly.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Dissertation

The Dissertation course option offers final-year students the opportunity to undertake in-depth legal/sociolegal research. Students design their own research question – and submit a research proposal online – on a topic they have not previously (or concurrently) studied in depth. The Dissertation option will be examined a) by electronic submission of a 10,000 word Dissertation and b) a short final examination.
The Dissertation is a course in its own right and it may be used to complete the Laws
Skills Portfolio.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Scheme F - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Scheme F (twelve courses)

Scheme F is intended for students who are not seeking a Qualifying Law Degree and who are studying on a part-time basis. Subject to some course selection constraints, you may choose a minimum of two courses and a maximum of four courses per year. The degree can be completed in a minimum of three years as shown in the example below.

Year 1 (four courses)
Four compulsory Intermediate courses: Common law reasoning and institutions; Criminal law; Elements of the law of contract; Public law.

Year 2 (four courses)
Four compulsory Finals courses: Property law; Law of tort; Law of trusts; Jurisprudence and legal theory

Year 3 (four courses)

A minimum of two courses and a maximum of four courses taken from Group 1 and up to a maximum of two courses from Group 2.

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Compulsory Finals

Property law

Much of the work of solicitors turns around property law in the form of conveyancing (buying and selling dwellings or commercial enterprises) or the relations between landlords and tenants. Here the central principles of English law are portrayed, including the necessary historical context, as many of the basic concepts were established in social conditions very different from today. Property law centres on the concept of the nature and quantum of the various interests that can exist in land, the principles governing the creation, transfer and extinction of these interests and the extent that those interests are enforceable against third parties.

Law of tort

The law of tort concerns the civil liability for the wrongful infliction of injury by one person upon another. The characteristic claim in tort is for monetary compensation or damages. There is no single principle of liability, which makes tort law complex; also there are other sources of monetary compensation for personal injuries (such as unemployment/social security payments, private insurance, criminal injuries compensation schemes, etc.) as well as the fact that the same harms may be pursued through the criminal justice system.
Negligence is a key topic and other topics include: interference with economic interest; trespass; defamation; vicarious liability as well as defences and remedies, and sources of future development including EU law.

Law of trusts

A part of Equity law, the law of trusts deals with the rules and principles governing the creation and operation of trusts – a particular method of holding property that developed historically primarily to preserve family wealth, particularly by minimising liability to taxation. The syllabus focuses on three broad areas: 1) the requirements for establishing a valid trust (including express private trusts; charitable trusts; implied and resulting trusts; constructive trusts); 2) the powers and obligations of trustees under a valid trust (including appointment, retirement and removal of trustees); 3) the remedies available when trustees act improperly.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Graduate Entry Route A - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Graduate Entry Route A (nine courses)

This structure enables graduates, with a degree awarded by an institution acceptable to the University, to follow a shorter route. Nine courses are taken in two stages. It takes a minimum of two years to complete and is a Qualifying Law Degree if completed within six years.

Year 1 (four courses)
All four courses from the Intermediate list (see list below)
Year 2 (five courses)
Law of tort, Law of trusts, Property law and two courses from Optional Finals Group 1 or Group 2

 

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Dissertation

The Dissertation course option offers final-year students the opportunity to undertake in-depth legal/sociolegal research. Students design their own research question – and submit a research proposal online – on a topic they have not previously (or concurrently) studied in depth. The Dissertation option will be examined a) by electronic submission of a 10,000 word Dissertation and b) a short final examination.
The Dissertation is a course in its own right and it may be used to complete the Laws
Skills Portfolio.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Graduate Entry Route B - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Graduate Entry Route B (nine courses)

This structure is intended for graduates who wish to study at a more measured pace. Nine courses taken in three stages. It can be completed in a minimum of three years and is a Qualifying Law Degree if completed within six years.

Year 1 (three courses)
Common law reasoning and institutions plus two other courses from the Intermediate list
Year 2 (three courses)
The remaining course from the Intermediate list plus two courses from Law of tort, Law of trusts and Property law
Year 3 (three courses)
The remaining compulsory course not already taken from Year 2 plus two courses from Optional Finals Group 1 or Group 2

 

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Dissertation

The Dissertation course option offers final-year students the opportunity to undertake in-depth legal/sociolegal research. Students design their own research question – and submit a research proposal online – on a topic they have not previously (or concurrently) studied in depth. The Dissertation option will be examined a) by electronic submission of a 10,000 word Dissertation and b) a short final examination.
The Dissertation is a course in its own right and it may be used to complete the Laws
Skills Portfolio.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Graduate Entry Route F - Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Graduate Entry Route F (nine courses)

This structure is intended for students who are not seeking a Qualifying Law Degree and who are studying on a part-time basis. Subject to some course selection constraints, you can choose a minimum of two courses and a maximum of four courses per year. The degree can be completed in a minimum of three years as shown in the example below.

Year 1 (four courses)
All four intermediate courses: Common law reasoning and institutions, Criminal law, Elements of the law of contract and Public law.

Year 2 (three courses)
Three Compulsory Finals courses: Property law, Law of tort and Law of trusts.

Year 3 (two courses)
Two courses taken from the choice of Group 1 and/or Group 2 Optional Finals.

Intermediate

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

Compulsory Finals

Property law

Much of the work of solicitors turns around property law in the form of conveyancing (buying and selling dwellings or commercial enterprises) or the relations between landlords and tenants. Here the central principles of English law are portrayed, including the necessary historical context, as many of the basic concepts were established in social conditions very different from today. Property law centres on the concept of the nature and quantum of the various interests that can exist in land, the principles governing the creation, transfer and extinction of these interests and the extent that those interests are enforceable against third parties.

Law of tort

The law of tort concerns the civil liability for the wrongful infliction of injury by one person upon another. The characteristic claim in tort is for monetary compensation or damages. There is no single principle of liability, which makes tort law complex; also there are other sources of monetary compensation for personal injuries (such as unemployment/social security payments, private insurance, criminal injuries compensation schemes, etc.) as well as the fact that the same harms may be pursued through the criminal justice system.
Negligence is a key topic and other topics include: interference with economic interest; trespass; defamation; vicarious liability as well as defences and remedies, and sources of future development including EU law.

Law of trusts

A part of Equity law, the law of trusts deals with the rules and principles governing the creation and operation of trusts – a particular method of holding property that developed historically primarily to preserve family wealth, particularly by minimising liability to taxation. The syllabus focuses on three broad areas: 1) the requirements for establishing a valid trust (including express private trusts; charitable trusts; implied and resulting trusts; constructive trusts); 2) the powers and obligations of trustees under a valid trust (including appointment, retirement and removal of trustees); 3) the remedies available when trustees act improperly.

Optional Finals Group 1

Administrative law

Administrative law has been hugely expanding in the late 20th century/early 21st century. Its core purpose is to ensure that any decisions or action taken by government are lawful and, when they are not, to provide redress for grievances. A range of grievance-redressing mechanisms are examined, including: judicial review, ‘ombudsmen’ and tribunals. The course also looks at how policies can be implemented through delegated legislation, informal rules, the use of discretion and so on. This subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law and who have an interest in public affairs.

Civil and criminal procedure

Focused on the substantive issues and values that underpin Civil and criminal procedure, the course is divided equally between Civil and criminal procedure. Students will be expected to compare and contrast Civil and criminal procedure and will need to have a good working knowledge of the court system and the way in which civil and criminal justice is organised and dispensed. Specific topics include: civil process before trial, commencement of proceedings, jurisdiction, responding to a claim, case management, summary disposals and trials, remedies and criminal procedure, police powers and bail, commencement of proceedings, pleas and plea bargaining, ID and other evidence and sentencing.

Commercial law

Commercial law is concerned with obligations between parties to commercial transactions and the relationship with rules of personal property. Students are expected to become familiar with the significance and implications of: ownership of or title to goods; the transfer of title and its effect on third parties; the passing of property between buyer and seller; the significance of possession; and responsibility for risk of loss of or damage to goods and its transfer from one party to another. Familiarity with the general ideas underlying contract, tort and trust law will provide a useful background. Emphasis is placed on both knowledge of principles and the ability to apply the rules of law to achieve practical solutions to practical problems.

Company law

This area of law is fast moving with frequent legislative change due to pressures for reform from the UK Department of Trade and Industry and from the EU with its policy of harmonising the company law of its member states. The syllabus centres on the way law regulates companies and the facilities company law offers, such as limited liability and transferability of shares – as well as the corresponding burdens (duties of disclosure, compliance with statutory procedures and common law duties) and the dynamics of the often tense relationship between shareholders and management. A vital course for anyone intending to operate in the commercial field; students will benefit from knowledge of Contract, Tort, Trusts and Public law.

Criminology

Criminology examines the relationship between the individual who breaks the laws of the state and the state’s power to lay down laws and to punish for breaches of those laws – but from a range of political, sociological, psychological and philosophical points of view. Criminology has long been at odds with legalistic approaches towards dealing with crime and raises often controversial aspects of social policy, social control, style of policing, and community involvement in the criminal justice system. The subject will appeal to those students who wish to
escape from heavily case-law oriented subjects and who are prepared to think critically about their societies and the nature of social order.

EU law

[EU law is a required course by the professional bodies in England and Wales for the Bachelor of Laws as a Qualifying Law Degree.]

The European Union (EU) is a relatively new legal system that combines characteristics of international law and national legal systems. EU institutions and law-making powers are examined as well as the key questions of the impact of EU law on national law and its overall consequences for a) business enterprises and b) individuals. As EU law is highly responsive to economic and social changes, legal rules and judicial decisions are studied in their wider context. The subject will appeal to students who enjoyed studying Public law or who have an interest in public affairs, politics, economics or international relations.

Evidence

The law of evidence governs what facts may be presented – and contested – in the courtroom, the techniques for eliciting evidence, and the role of the lawyers, jury and judge in an adversarial system. The subject is an attractive mixture of the intensely practical (e.g. how is cross-examination controlled? what is a jury permitted to hear? when has the burden of proof been discharged?) and the abstract and academic (what is a ‘fact’? what does ‘relevance’ mean? when is evidence prejudicial?). Highly relevant to actual day-to-day legal practice, the subject will appeal especially to students intending to practise in court.

Family law

Family law affects every member of society, from conception to the grave. Originating in religious law, today the legal regulation of family relationships involves a complex relation between the family and the state. Marriage and divorce and the legal status of offspring are intertwined with questions of financial provision and child protection, not to mention public policy issues arising from advances in biological science or the rise of children’s rights. Family law is highly porous in relation to expert knowledge from disciplines such as psychology and sociology, which means that understanding the statute and case law is not a discrete or isolated study.

History of English law

Please note:

  • Registration for the History of English Law [LA3012] course has been discontinued and no new registrations for this course will be accepted.
  • The last examinations, including resits, under these Regulations for this course, will be held in 2017.

Full understanding and enjoyment of studying legal history develops both historical and legal skills. Thanks to the large amount of surviving materials, the origins of the common law may be traced in considerable detail from its effective beginnings as the body of customary laws applied in the royal courts during the first two centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The institutions of the common law courts, procedure and modes of trial are traced through to the early modern period, followed by an examination of the historical development of the substantive law of land, contract and tort. This course will appeal to students who enjoy exploring a wide range of reading materials for themselves.

International protection of human rights

International protection of human rights law concerns protection afforded to individuals. This course seeks to instil a holistic and critical awareness of the fundamental concepts, principles, theories and philosophies underlying international human rights as well as an understanding of the principal internal mechanisms installing and enforcing/monitoring these rights. Specific topics covered include: the individual in international law; debates about universalism vs cultural relativism; genocide; the history, politics and specific human rights legal enactments instituted by the United Nations; enforcement mechanisms; a review of the systems by reference to key vulnerable groups, notably refugees; the evolution of international individual responsibility for acts such as crimes against humanity and war crimes.

Introduction to Islamic law

This course offers students an overview of Islamic law, covering its religious, historical and contemporary dimensions. The emphasis of the first part of the course is on the religious and historical foundations of Islamic law, including the emergence of different schools of Islamic law and their consolidation in the main authoritative sources of Islamic law. The course then goes on to examine the application of Islamic law in contemporary jurisdictions, including the reform of Islamic law, focusing on Islamic family law with a shorter section on Islamic criminal law, covering a range of jurisdictions from the Middle East and South Asia. Aspects of civil law and
international law are also covered.

Jurisprudence and legal theory (Intercollegiate)

The nature of jurisprudence: methodology, analysis, theory and the idea of definition, the relevance of language and ideology.

Legal positivism and its critics: the command theory, Hart-Fuller debate, Dworkin’s criticism of positivism, Kelsen (including the use of Kelsenian principles in revolution cases), Raz’s theory of law.

Moral theory and the law: the history of natural law, Finnis’s natural law theory, liberalism and the Hart-Devlin debate, moral rights, utilitarianism and its critics, utilitarianism and the economic analysis of law.

Legal reasoning: Dworkin’s theory of law as integrity, Dworkin’s methodology, practical reasoning, Hohfeld’s /> analysis of legal rights.

Social theory and critical accounts of law, including the American Critical Legal Studies movement, Marxist theories of law and state, feminist jurisprudence.

A study in depth of a text prescribed by the examiners on which there will be one compulsory question in the examination.

Labour law

Labour law has key consequences both for individuals in their job settings and the operation of the labour market in general. The course begins with matters that may be pursued by individuals, covering contracts of employment, unfair dismissal, redundancy, equal pay, and sex and race discrimination. (Understanding of contract law and a willingness to grapple with EU law is important here.) The second part deals with ‘collective’ labour law: the protection of the worker re trade union membership and activities; the status and organisation of trade unions; trade union recognition; the legal regulation of collective bargaining and the law relating to trade disputes. This course will appeal to students interested in industrial relations and their historical and political contexts.

Public international law

Public international law has been increasingly under the spotlight as it governs – among other things – the agreed rules of the use of force. Public international law concerns legal relations between states but also deals with the role of the United Nations and other international organisations and, in the fields of human rights and international criminal law, the rights and duties of individuals. The course moves from examining basic principles – the sources of international law and the bases of recognising statehood – through specific issues of jurisdictional immunities, treaties and state responsibility to go on to see how these principles are applied in specific areas such as international criminal law, human rights, international environmental law and the law of the sea.

Optional Finals Group 2

Conflict of laws

Also known as private international law, this is the body of rules applied by the English courts to cases with a foreign element, dealing with core issues of jurisdiction, substantive decision-making and recognition of the laws of other jurisdictions. Existing case law has been developed in recent years with the statutory implementation of International Conventions and Law Commission reports – yet there are questions as yet unsettled, which increases the importance of academic writing and also gives students the chance to present their own solutions. The course covers all English domestic law.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property is a rapidly expanding body of law that has come into increasing domestic and international prominence. Involving both artistic and scientific concerns, intellectual property underpins a wide variety of everyday activities for individual consumers – hence in turn its immense economic and industrial significance. The law of intellectual property rights seeks a difficult balance between rewarding the right owner and the needs of society to gain access to scientific, technological or cultural benefits. It includes copyright, patent and trade mark law. The course examines the range of different domestic and international legal categories involved
in regulating this form of intangible property, and pays specific attention to the ways in which English law, lacking any discrete law of unfair competition, frequently relies on ‘press-ganging’ a range of independent rights (such as confidentiality) to serve that purpose.

Succession

Who is entitled to a person’s property on their death, whether that person has made a will or dies intestate? And should there be any restrictions on whom people who make wills are allowed to leave property to when they die? These are the basic questions underpinning the law of succession, and they will affect all people who have access to some form of property, whether as inheritors or as those passing on property. The aim of this course is to explore in detail the operation of inheritance law, especially how a valid will is made, how it can be challenged, how it is administered and what happens when a person dies without leaving a valid will.

Notes

  • This page is intended for use by prospective students as a guide. Please consult the Regulations for full syllabus listings and confirmation of structures.
  • EU law: in England and Wales, the Solicitors Regulation Authority and Bar Standards Board require students to pass EU law in order to obtain a Qualifying Law Degree.
  • Jurisprudence and legal theory is compulsory under Schemes A and B and optional under Graduate Entry Routes A and B.

Diploma in Law

The Diploma in Law consists of four compulsory courses.

Four compulsory courses

Common law reasoning and institutions

This comprehensive introduction to the English legal system seeks to convey what is distinctive about the common law approach as a legal methodology and as it refl ects the history and politics of England and Wales. It examines the sources of law, the civil and criminal court structures, the role of judges and the jury. A running concern of the course is the question of fairness: the impact of the Human Rights Act on the criminal justice system and the issues of access to justice in the civil courts. This course is also vital in initiating students into the process of legal research and the final examination has a compulsory section on research activities carried out during the year.

[Registration with the Online Library is a requirement for successfully completing this course.]

Criminal law

This course examines general principles of criminal liability, a range of fatal and non-fatal offences against the person and selected offences against property. Attempts to commit offences, secondary liability and defences also form part of the University of London criminal law curriculum. Criminal law consists of a highly developed body of precisely formulated legal rules but as criminal conduct is subject to punishment it thus engages with broad issues of morality and policy. Understanding the tension between certainty in the law and social adaptation affects the development of criminal law will take students beyond the basic stage of understanding the substantive rules of criminal law.

Elements of the law of contract

Contracts are the legal basis of all commercial transactions. Covering the core topics – including formation of contracts, capacity to contract and privity, performance and breach of contract and remedies for breach of contract – the emphasis is on understanding the key underlying principles of English law. This is very much a case law subject, with judicial precedents stretching back nearly 400 years in some instances (but more usually of 19th- and 20th-century origin) and a small number of statutory provisions, as well as the impact of EU law. An understanding of what factors judges may, or must, take into account when exercising their discretion is crucial.

Public law

The UK constitution is famously ‘unwritten’ and thus contrasts with other constitutional models. Analysing key issues of sovereignty and the division of powers between legislature, executive and administration, one key question is how far the UK lives up to classic doctrine. Equally, membership of the European Union, and the Human Rights Act 1998, aff ect the overall picture of the relation between citizen and the state. To fully engage with this subject, students need to take an interest in current affairs and debates about what is involved in constitutional issues and reforms.

To study the Diploma in Law you must attend a recognised centre which is listed on the Institutions Directory. Currently there are institutions teaching the Diploma in Law in Bangladesh, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, and the United Kingdom.

You will be expected to undertake research exercises and make extensive use of Online Library resources. Your teaching institution will give classes in study skills and, where necessary, additional English language support.

Study materials

How you study

You receive specially designed learning materials and have access to a significant array of online resources. Please note that online access is a requirement for registration to the LLB and the Diploma in Law. The cost of your materials is included in your initial and continuing registration fees.

The study materials are designed to guide you through the syllabus for each course and direct your reading of the prescribed textbooks, study packs and Online Library resources. Although all study materials are specially produced for self-directed learning, many students choose to pay for additional educational support through an independent teaching institution either full time or part time, and benefit from the more formalised support this provides. Diploma in Law students must have registered through, and be studying at, a teaching institution that has been specifically granted Diploma Teaching Status by the University of London.

You are strongly advised to apply to us and wait for confirmation that you are eligible to register before enrolling with an institution. Enrolment with an institution does not mean that a student is automatically registered with the University.

Study materials include:

  • Studying law. An introductory guide to the study of English common law. This is sent to all students who receive an offer letter and is also available online.
  • A subject guide for each course you study. The guide will take you systematically through the course topics, with instructions on reading, learning activities (with feedback) and guidance on answering sample examination questions.
  • Study Packs. Key recommended readings in the subject guides are available online.
  • Statute books are provided for all courses where a statute book is permitted in the exam.
  • Textbooks. You will receive one copy of the textbook for all Intermediate courses and also for the Law of tort, Property law, and Law of trusts.
  • Programme Handbook. The Programme handbook is written by Undergraduate Laws Programme staff. It will include academic guidance about how to study, the support and learning resources that are available to you and how to prepare for examinations. The handbook/manual is either sent to students when they register, made available on the Virtual Learning Environment or via the web.
  • Student Guide. The Student Guide is produced for the benefit of all students. It includes information, advice and guidance on the different stages and different demands of the student life cycle. It will be a valuable point of reference throughout your studies.
  • Regulations. These tell you about syllabuses, programme structures, how to enter for exams, marking schemes, transfers etc., and are provided in electronic format.

Study support and online resources 

  • Laws VLE - The password protected Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) provides a centralised location for accessing many resources. It hosts Law subject pages provided by legal academics, computer marked assessments, discussion forums and facilities for you to set up your own profile page.
  • Online legal research exercises - Designed to build and enhance your ability to find primary and secondary legal materials using electronic sources, and to conduct legal research generally.
  • Online Library - Gives access to Justis.com, JSTOR, ABI/INFORM, Lexis® Library, Westlaw, Academic Search Complete, Business Search Premier, and Casetrack.
  • Study Support Sessions - There are four Study Support Sessions held in London each year in November/December, February, March and April. Tuition is given by experienced law lecturers. These courses are intensive, with up to eight hours of lectures and tutorials each day. Each Study Support Session covers different topics and students are encouraged to attend all four. The Study Support Sessions concentrate on important areas of each course and new developments and recent legislation.
  • You will also have access to news items, Examiners' reports and past exam papers, the Programme Handbook, Student Guide, Subject Guides, Regulations and reading lists and be provided with a student registration card.
  • For further information on the textbooks, statute books and casebooks for each course please see the Booklist 2014-2015 [pdf: 32pgs 233KB].

What our students say

Gisela Stuart
Laws graduate, UK.
MP for Birmingham Edgbaston and Member of the Foreign Affairs Select Committee.

"Studying, revising, looking after a family and staying sane is no easy task! I was lucky; I had a tolerant and supportive spouse, children who respond to a flexible routine, and the stamina and determination needed of success. I was thrilled when I actually completed the degree: the presentation ceremony at the Barbican Centre was one of the most moving and magnificent experiences of my life. I am now MP for Birmingham Edgbaston. This is due in no small part to the skills I acquired as an International Programmes student at the University of London."

Fees

Fees

The fees below relate to the 2014-2015 session and are subject to annual review.

 

LLB, Diploma in Law, and Diploma in the Common Law2014-2015
Application handling fee (non-refundable)£ 76
Initial registration fee£ 880
Continuing registration fee£ 362
Examination fees:
One paper£ 239
Two papers£ 379
Three papers£ 555
Four papers£ 645
Five papers£ 810
Credit transfer/APL (per course)£ 40
Full year's transfer fee£ 160
Laws skills pathway 1 (dissertation)*£ 280
Laws skills pathway 2 (research project)*£ 192
Total LLB Scheme A£ 3,615
Total LLB Scheme B£ 4,262
Total LLB Graduate Entry Route A£ 2,773
Total LLB Graduate Entry Route B£ 3,345
Total Diploma in Law£ 1,525
Total Diploma in the Common Law£ 1,601
Individual courses2014-2015
Application handling fee£ 76
Application handling fee for presently registered LLB students £ 38
Individual course fee(includes an examination attempt) £ 459
Re-sit fee (for one paper)£ 239
Total per stand-alone Individual course£ 535
ConvertGBP x 1

Disclaimer: the currency conversion tool is provided to you for convenience only and does not constitute an endorsement or approval by the University of London; the exchange rates are provided dynamically via a third-party source, consequently, the University of London International Programmes is not responsible for their accuracy.

*Applicable to those students seeking a Qualifying Law Degree.

The totals provided above are examples of the total amount of fees payable to the University for the whole programme of study. These examples are calculated using the current fees and so do not reflect any annual change in fees. They also assume completion in the minimum time permitted with no accreditation of prior learning.

When to pay

The application handling fee is payable when you make your application. The closing date for applications is 1 October. If you meet the entrance requirements you will be invited to register.

The initial registration fee is payable when you register with the University. The closing date for registrations is 30 November for the Bachelor of Laws and 31 October for the Diploma in Law.

The examination fee is payable when you choose to enter an examination. Examination entries are accepted from mid-December to the closing date of 1 February. Examinations take place in May or June each year.

The continuing registration fee is payable in the second and subsequent years of registration at the time when you confirm the courses that you will be registered for during that year. The closing date for continuing registration is 1 November.

How to pay

All University fees must be paid in pounds sterling (GBP). The University accepts:

  • Western Union - Quick Pay.
  • Credit/debit card (Visa, MasterCard, Maestro, Electron, JCB).
  • Sterling banker's draft/cheque.
  • International money/postal order.

Further details are given in payment methods.

Other costs

In addition to the fees payable to the University, you should also budget for the cost of:

  • purchasing textbooks (this may well be in the region of £300 per year).
  • the cost of any course or tuition you choose to take or (for the Diploma in Law) are required to take.
  • the fee levied by your local examination centre to cover their costs.

Financial assistance

Students resident in the UK may be able to obtain a discretionary award to cover registration and examination fees from their local education authority to whom such inquiries should be addressed. Some employers, in both the public and the private sector, are also prepared to provide such funding. Both local education authorities and some other employers do from time to time provide financial assistance towards the cost of attending short courses.

Assessment

Assessment 

For all courses (except the LLB final-year Dissertation option) assessment is entirely by unseen written three-hour examinations at the end of each stage of study. Examinations are held in May/June at local centres in over 180 different countries as well as in London (please see the Assessment and examinations section of our website for further details). Examinations are marked by University of London approved academics to ensure your work is assessed to the same standard as College-based students of the University.

The Laws courses are not ‘modular’: you must complete each stage of the course before proceeding to the next. That is one reason for the high reputation of our qualifications.

Requirements

Academic Requirements

In order to satisfy the entrance requirements for the Bachelor of Laws you must:

*Applications will be considered from applicants who do not meet the normal minimum age requirement for admission. Each application will be considered on an individual basis, and the decision taken at the discretion of the University of London.

If you are not automatically eligible then you will be individually considered by the University of London’s Special Admissions Panel. The Special Admissions Panel will consider qualifications which are not published under the Qualifications for Entrance Schedule, incomplete qualifications (e.g. diplomas / degrees) and substantial relevant work experience. If we cannot accept you with your current qualifications and experience, we will advise you what qualifications you could take in order to become eligible in the future.

Graduate entry to the LLB

The following are eligible to apply for graduate entry:

  • graduates holding a full first degree from an acceptable university in the United Kingdom or another European country or in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ghana, Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Nigeria, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa or the Caribbean
  • graduates holding a full first degree from a regionally accredited institution in the USA
  • graduates holding a full first degree from an acceptable university in India which is at least three-years full time in duration

Applications from students with other degrees not listed above will be considered at the discretion of the University. Professional qualifications cannot be considered for Graduate Entry. Please contact us if you would like further advice about eligibility for graduate entry.

Diploma in Law

To be eligible to register for the Diploma in Law you must:

  • normally* be aged 18 years of age or older before 1 September in the year you register with the University and
  • be admitted to a course of instruction at a teaching institution which has been given 'Diploma Teaching Status' (for further details see advice about choosing an institution).

English language requirement

The language of instruction, reading and assessment is English. To succeed on our programmes you need a good level of competence in English. If you doubt your ability in written or spoken English we advise you take a course and test in English language before enrolling on the programme.

Required standard of English

You will usually meet the English language requirement for undergraduate programmes if you:

  • hold a UK GCSE / GCE O level in English at grade C or above
  • have five years secondary schooling taught solely in English or have passed GCE A levels or IB in essay-based subjects
  • have passed an International Foundation programme that permits entry onto a recognised UK bachelor degree
  • hold a full Postgraduate award, or a full first degree or Associate degree taught and examined in English from an institute that is acceptable to the University
  • have passed, within the past three years, an Associate degree, Diploma or Higher Diploma awarded by an acceptable institute / polytechnic / university in Hong Kong, Malaysia or Singapore, or
  • have passed, within the past three years, a test of proficiency in English language from an organisation acceptable to the University.

Where an applicant does not meet the required English language level but believes they can demonstrate the required level for admission the University may, at its discretion, consider the application.

Please note if an applicant satisfies one of the above conditions yet provides evidence of a test of proficiency in English language, awarded within the past three years, which is below the University’s minimum requirements then they will be required to retake such a test before being offered admission.

Recognition of prior study

The University can recognise your prior study in one of two ways:

(a) On the basis of a completed first degree from an institution acceptable to the University for this purpose you can be given advanced standing and undertake the Graduate Entry LLB. This means that you will only have to study nine subjects rather than 12. You must however, study all nine as you cannot be given any recognition for individual subjects previously studied in the case of Graduate Entry.

(b) In the case of the 12 subject LLB, on the basis of an intermediate or equivalent examination of an appropriate degree at a university that is acceptable to the University for this purpose you can be given credit transfer for the credits undertaken as equivalent to the intermediate examination under Scheme A or the equivalent subjects undertaken in the first or second year under Scheme B.

The university will assess all requests for credit transfer on a case by case basis and a fee is payable. For further details see the accreditation of prior learning section of the website.

Computer Requirements

You must have regular access to a computer (or mobile device*) with an internet connection to use the University of London International Programmes website and the Student Portal. These are where your programme’s study resources are located. Through the Student Portal you can register as a student, enter exams and use your programme’s Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). The VLE provides you with electronic learning materials, access to the University of London Online Library, networking opportunities, and other resources.

To get the most from your studies, your computer should have at least the following minimum specification: 

  • a web browser (the latest version of Firefox, Chrome or Internet Explorer). This must accept cookies and have JavaScript enabled
  • screen resolution of 1024 x 768 or greater
  • sufficient bandwidth to download documents of at least 2 MB

and the following applications installed:

  • a word processor that reads Microsoft Word format (.doc)
  • Adobe, or other pdf reader.

* Full mobile access is not available for all programmes.

Academic leaders

Academic direction - Laws - LLB

The University of London Undergraduate Laws Programme is governed academically by the six University of London Colleges with Law Schools or Departments. Collectively, they are known as the Laws Consortium. The six Colleges are: Birkbeck, King’s College London, The London School of Economics and Political Science, Queen Mary, the School of Oriental and African Studies, and UCL (University College London).

Academic leaders

Professor Jenny Hamilton

Professor Hamilton joined the University of London International Programmes as Director of the Undergraduate Laws programme in January 2010. As Director, Jenny is primarily responsible for driving forward strategic planning and key initiatives and one of her most important responsibilities is to review and develop the quality of the student learning experience.

Read Jenny’s full academic profile.

 

Simon Askey

As Deputy Director and Head of the Programme Simon is responsible for the academic co-ordination of the assessment process and matters relating to student progression and performance. His role also involves management; administration; regulatory and committee work; inspections; and elements of marketing and ‘ambassadorial’ activity. Simon also leads on the skills agenda and the development of the Laws Skills Portfolio.

Read Simon's full academic profile.

 

Patricia McKellar

As Associate Director of the Undergraduate Laws Programme, Patricia drives development and implementation of the learning, teaching and assessment strategy specifically in relation to the embedding of e-learning technologies and the development of an interactive learning environment. Working very closely with colleagues in the Laws team Patricia has particular responsibility for guiding and supporting the college-based academic staff in implementing the strategy in their particular courses..

Read Patricia's full academic profile.


Tracey Varnava

As Associate Director of the Undergraduate Laws Programme, Tracey is involved in programme development and review, with a particular focus on looking strategically at how to enhance the qualifications offered by the Undergraduate Laws Programme to ensure continuing value in the global market. She also advises on quality assurance and regulatory matters and contributes to the development and management of information provided to students and registered teaching centres.

Read Tracey's full academic profile.

Apply online

Qualifying as a Lawyer
LLB as a Qualifying Law Degree [pdf, 3pgs 273KB]

Laws blog
Visit the Laws blog.

Student blog
Read blog posts from our students.

Cheryl Brown London Connection Q&A: Cheryl Brown attorney and author Cheryl Brown talks about being called to the Bar and working at UNESCO.

Alumni Inspiration: Daniel Chua, LLB, Malaysia

University of London Bachelor of Laws graduate Daniel Chua talks about his experience studying for the LLB at Advance Tertiary College in Malaysia.